Week 6 APO102 – Islam

This Week’s Downloads:

Week Date Topic Student Notes Audio PowerPoint Teacher


6 3/18 Islam Notes MP3 PPT Notes

Homework Downloads:

Chapter Summary

Class Outline

I. History of Islam

II. Doctrinal Differences

III. Sharing the Gospel with Muslims


I. History of Islam

1. Origin

History of the Man: Mohammed (AD 570-632)

  • Born in Mecca in AD 570
  • Both parents die while he was young
  • Raised by his uncle
  • Mohammed most likely was influenced by Monophylies (who tech Christ had only a divine nature) and Nestorians (who teach that Jesus wasn’t both fully God and fully man) and the Jewish Talmud
  • Married at 25 to his wealthy widow employer who was 40
  • Mohammed spent the next 15 years in solitary meditation
  • While meditating the archangel Gabriel came to him in a dream in which he was given revelations concerning the Qur’an
  • The Qur’an is Mohammed’s reciting of the revelations given to him
  • Mohammed began to preach in the marketplace in Mecca
  • Mohammed never claimed to be divine but that he was a prophet of Allah
  • He spoke against the polytheism of his day and was met with bitter opposition
  • His wife and uncle died in AD 620
  • He was forced to flee in AD 622
  • In AD 630 Meccans formed an army to destroy Mohammed and his followers but were unsuccessful
  • Mohammed destroyed all the idols in Mecca except for the Black Stone which is a meteorite
  • Mohammed died AD 632


2. Development

History of the Movement: Islam

Crash Course in History: Islam (13 minutes here)[1]

Spread of Islamic Culture | World History | Khan Academy (8 minutes here)[2]


Short Timeline of Islam (after Mohammed)[3]

  • “The first centuries of Islam gave rise to three major sects: Sunnis, Shi’as and Kharijites. Each sect developed distinct jurisprudence schools reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence.[4]


  • The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history
  • Umar ibn al-Khattab – supporters became known as the Sunnis. He became the political leader
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib – Mohammed’s chosen successor, his supporters became known as Shias. Was the spiritual and religious leader


Branches of Islam[5]

  • Sunni Muslims (80%)
  • Shia Muslims (10–13%)
  • Sufi (1%)


Population of the branches

Denomination           Population

Sunni                         1.4 billion

Shia                            154–200 million

Ibadi                           2.7 million

Ahmadiyya                10–20 million


Back Muslims

  • Began with Timothy Drew (who changed his name to Noble Drew Ali) in 1913; he called for an overthrow of white culture
  • Wallace Fard Mohammed, claimed to be Ali reincarnated (after Ali died in 1919) and he formed the Nation of Islam in 1930
  • Elijah Mohammed took over after Wallace disappeared in 1935
  • Malcom X moved from the Nation of Islam to orthodox (Sunni) Islam after a pilgrimage to Mecca. He was assassinated in 1965 by Black Muslims. For a short Bio on Malcom X Here[6]
  • Nation of Islam grew rapidly in 1960-1970
  • Present day Black Muslims are considered “un-Islamic” by orthodox Muslims


3. Doctrine

The Six Doctrines of Islam

Every Muslim is required to believe

  1. God – There is only one God and His name is Allah.
  2. Angels – the Chief angel is Gabriel (who appeared to Mohammed), a fallen angel named Shaitan (from the Hebrew Satan) who has followers called jinns (daemons)
  3. Scripture – the Torah of Moses, the Zabur (Psalms of David), Injil (Gospel) of Jesus, and the Qur’an. But the first three were corrupted so that only the Qur’an can be fully trusted and has the final authority
  4. Mohammed – the greatest and last prophet (of the 28 which the Qur’an lists)
  5. The end times – the dead resurrected, Allah will judge, people sent to heaven or hell.
  6. Predestination – only God’s will is ever done


The Five Pillars of the Faith

Five duties to preform:

  1. Statement of Belief – publicly and in Arabic recite the Shahadah – “There is no god but Allah and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah.”
  2. Prayer – 5x daily facing in the direction of Mecca
  3. Alms – 2.5% to the widows, orphans, sick an otherwise poor
  4. Ramadan – 9th month of the Islamic lunar year (this year it is: Ramadan 2018 will begin on Wednesday, 16th May 2018 and end on Thursday, 14th June 2018)
  5. Pilgrimage to Mecca – called Hajj must be performed at least once in a lifetime



  • The Torah of Moses
  • The Zabur (Psalms of David)
  • Injil (Gospel) of Jesus
  • Qur’an.

But the first three were corrupted so that only the Qur’an can be fully trusted and has the final authority


The Qur’an is the sacred scripture

  • About four fiths the length of the NT
  • Includes 114 surahs (chapters)
  • Some of these chapters were dictated by Mohammed, the rest were written by his disciples
  • All of the Qur’an is considered to be God’s words

Hadith – supplement the teaching of the Qur’an

  • It is composed of the official collection of the Sunnah
  • Sunnah – lit. the path – Teachings and traditions build on Mohammed’s life and conduct

Shariah – law

  • Legal interpretations of the Qur’an

A strict and comprehensive guild of life and conduct for Muslims


II. Doctrinal Differences

1. Scripture

  • Though some of the Christian Scriptures are held to as Scripture, it is the Qur’an that has the final authority
  • The Hadith and Shariah are also authoritative for most Muslims


2. Salvation

  • Denies that man cannot save himself – professes that ‘each person must take care of his own sins’

“And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And if a heavily laden soul calls [another] to [carry some of] its load, nothing of it will be carried, even if he should be a close relative. You can only warn those who fear their Lord unseen and have established prayer. And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself for [the benefit of] his soul. And to Allah is the [final] destination.” (Quran 35:18)

  • Denies the substitutionary death of Jesus (and the historical crucifixion [Qur’an 4:157])

And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.


3. Jesus

Muhammad’s Errors About Jesus – by James White (1.5 hours here)[7]

  • Denies the Trinity – Teaching that God is one in person and in essence
  • Denies the personal nature of God – God is not “Father”
  • Denies the deity of Jesus as the Son of God


III. Sharing the Gospel with Muslims

1. Where to start:

  • “As people whose confidence is not in themselves, but in the God who sent His Son to reconcile them to Him, Christians have incredibly good news to share with Muslims who are willing to listen.” (86)


When sharing his faith with a Muslim[8]

  • Contrast the uncertainty of the Muslim’s salvation with the certainty of salvation through Jesus Christ (John 5:24).
  • Contrast the Muslim belief in righteousness through works with the Bible’s teaching that no good work can make a person righteous; it is only through Christ’s righteousness that a person can be saved (Romans 5:21).
  • Contrast the Muslim belief that all will enter hell with the Bible’s teaching that only Satan, the demons, and the unsaved will enter hell (2 Peter 2:4; Revelation 20:15).
  • Contrast the Islamic teaching that salvation is through Allah’s arbitrary choosing and can only be known after death with the Christian hope that the truly repentant heart can be saved by grace through personal faith in Jesus Christ’s finished work on the Cross


2. More Resources


Current numbers on Islam



James White A-Z on Islam

Part 1: Historical Background; squeezed into about two-hour lecture –


Part 2: Theology and Beliefs; also a two-hour lecture –





From Samy Tanagho


How To Start The Conversation About Jesus

Using Common Ground To Share The Gospel?

Samy and Hala Tanagho

[1] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpcbfxtdoI8

[2] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDSTgKIQAzE

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Succession_to_Muhammad

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_schools_and_branches

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_schools_and_branches

[6] https://www.biography.com/video/malcolm-x-mini-biography-2078946252

[7] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgsuJCAzZv4

[8] https://answersingenesis.org/world-religions/islams-view-of-sin-and-salvation/

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